An Empirical Study of Entry and Exit with Multiple Firm Types

PSU Researcher(s)
Mark Roberts

Additional Researchers (Affiliation)
Shawn Klimek (Census Bureau)
Yi Xu (Duke University)
Timothy Dunne (Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta)

Description
This project studies changes in market structure in the U.S. service sector, with an emphasis on the health care industries. It uses data from the Census of Services 1977-2012 to measure the flows of establishment entry and exit. The data is used to estimate a dynamic model of entry and exit and quantify startup costs for new entrants and scrap values for exiting establishments.

Improving the Connection between the Spatial and the Survey Sciences

PSU Researcher(s)
Chris Fowler

Additional Researchers (Affiliation)
David Folch (Florida State University)
Nicholas Nagle (University of Tennessee Knoxville)
Seth Spielman (University of Colorado)

Description
This project uses ACS and decennial census data geocoded to the parcel level to explore possibilities for improving Census boundaries at very fine scales (block, block-group, tract). The intent is to identify ways that we might increase homogeneity within these geographies to reduce the level of uncertainty reported with ACS data. At present, uncertainty in the ACS makes the reported estimates difficult to rely on in statistical analysis. In the course of studying fine-scale census data we are also developing lines of inquiry that leverage the disaggregated data to answer basic questions about the distribution of the population in space.

Firm Level Adjustment of U.S. Food Firms to Globalization

PSU Researcher(s)
Spiro Stefanoi (PSU and University of Florida)

Additional Researchers (Affiliation)
Pinar Celikkol Geylani (Duquesne University)

Description
This project analyzes food manufacturing firms’ adjustment to globalizations by investigating the linkages among productivity, exports and imports, and the role of mergers and acquisitions on firms’ decisions to conduct arm’s length transactions as opposed to intra-firm trade. To investigate these relations, the researchers will link firms by utilizing the Longitudinal Firm Trade Transactions database (LFTTD) and using a variety of economics data sets: the Census of Manufactures (CMF), the Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM), the Longitudinal Business Database (LBD), the Ownership Change Database (OCD), and the Foreign Trade Data – Exports (EXP) and Imports (IMP). This project will shed light on the impact of trade in the following areas of the food manufacturing industry: 1) changes in product mix and product proliferation as well as changes in employment due to import competition and trade reforms; 2) the relationship between mergers and acquisitions and firms’ decisions to engage in arm’s length vs. intra-firm trade; 3) productivity differences between firms engaged in trade relative to those that are not; and, 4) innovation and product differentiation as engines for growth which promote competitiveness (measured as “returns to factors of production”).

International Buyer-Seller Matches

PSU Researcher(s)
James Tybout
Zi Wang
Jonathan Eaton

Additional Researchers (Affiliation)
David Jinkins (Copenhagen Business School)
Xi Yu (Duke University)
Cornell Krizan (Census Bureau)
Chuhang Yin (Duke University)

Description
"International Buyer-Seller Matches" (NSFGrant SES-142664) has three basic objectives. The first is to increase the usefulness of the Census Bureau's international trade statistics. This involves assessing the quality and possible biases of the shipment-level data that lie behind them, and it involves creating some new data sets that bring together shipment-level and firm-level information. The second objective is to calculate and analyze descriptive statistics that characterize the formation and maturation of cross-border business relationships, again using shipment-level and firm-level data. The final objective is to develop structural empirical models of international matching and network formation that allow us to address some policy-relevant questions that have received little attention. For example, how important are search frictions in limiting the gains from international buyer-seller matching? How much, if at all, have these gains grown with improvements in international communications over the past 20 years? Could it be that network effects make private investments in search sub-optimally low or high? And how important are the hysteresis effects in trade flows created by gradual adjustments in network structures?

Offshoring and Innovation

PSU Researcher(s)
Stephen Yeaple

Additional Researchers (Affiliation)
Wolfgang Keller (University of Colorado)

Description
With the increase in globalization, research and development (R&D) and production are increasingly separated across both firm and country boundaries. Our research project is to investigate the extent to which this growing fragmentation affects the private and social return to R&D. To answer this question, we have assembled a firm-level dataset from several Census resources, including the Census of Manufacturing (CMF), the transaction–level trade data (LFTTD), and the R&D survey data (SIRD & BRDIS). Additionally, we have merged patent ownership to the firms in this dataset. We infer changes in the return to R&D caused by the offshoring that was induced by China’s entry into the WTO.

Hispanic Health Care Access and Utilization in Different Geographic Locations

PSU Researcher(s)
Shannon Monnat
Raeven Faye Chandler

Description
This project uses Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data to identify the factors that influence disparities in health care access and utilization among Hispanics living in different spatial contexts (e.g., new vs. established destinations, metropolitan vs. non-metropolitan areas, and restrictive vs. non-restrictive policy contexts), with a particular focus on the moderating role of immigrant status and on the role of human capital characteristics and contextual characteristics in mediating those differences.

Neighborhood context, weight, and weight-related behaviors among Mexican American Children

PSU Researcher(s)
Jennifer Van Hook
Erin Baumgartner
Molly Dondero
Michelle Frisco
Megan Lemmon
Molly Martin
Susana Quiros
Dylan Yetter

Description
To better understand the factors underlying the high obesity prevalence among Mexican-American children, we ask three research questions: (1) how is community context related to Mexican children’s weight and weight-related behaviors? (2) how do the associations of community context with children’s weight and weight-related behaviors vary by household socioeconomic status and household weight-related characteristics? And (3) how do the associations of community context with children’s weight and weight-related behaviors vary by indicators of householder members’ and children’s exposure to the United States? We explore these questions by analyzing data collected by the 1999-2009 continuous NHANES. We are using restricted geographic variables in these data files so that we can link community characteristics, particularly the food and physical activity environment, socioeconomic disadvantage, racial-ethnic composition, and size and maturity of the Latino community (i.e., “new” versus “established” destinations), to children’s records in the NHANES. Other requested restricted variables will enable us to link household characteristics to children, thus providing better purchase on children’s household environments, including socioeconomic status and householders’ health behaviors.